1. Detailed examination of donor sperm and donor
Sperm donors are very thoroughly investigated. Even being accepted as a sperm donor requires extensive sperm, blood and urine tests.
In addition to the usual determination of the sperm parameters, blood, sperm and urine samples from the donor are also tested for infectious and sexually transmitted diseases each time a donation is made. If the sperm quality meets the WHO guidelines for sperm donors, the sperm are then frozen (cryopreservation).
However, donor samples are kept in quarantine for 6 months before being released for fertilisation. After 180 days of quarantine, a blood sample from the donor is tested for infectious and sexually transmitted diseases again, and the samples are finally released for sale if the serology is normal.
2. Contractual obligation
A couple that want a child must first be informed by a doctor with regard to the medical, legal and social issues in relation to sperm donation. The couple then conclude a written agreement with the doctor. This governs the rights and obligations of all parties involved.
In addition, a notarised contract is often concluded, which primarily protects the rights of the child born as a result of this fertilisation.
A written agreement is also concluded with the sperm bank.
3. Choice of a suitable sperm donor
Couples undergoing fertility treatment can then select the appropriate sperm donor according to various criteria – including:
- hair colour,
- eye colour,
- hair type,
- blood group,
- height, and
The couples can usually look at the sperm banks’ online catalogues for themselves to find a sperm donor with the desired characteristics. Alternatively, the sperm banks can select the appropriate donor if desired.
4. Fertilisation of the eggs with the donated sperm
The woman’s eggs are fertilised with the donated sperm. This is done either through
- heterologous insemination,
- Heterologous in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or
- heterologous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
The method used should be clarified with the doctor.